What is Ankylosing Spondylitis?
Sacroiliac joints are present in the lower back where the sacrum part of the vertebrae joins the iliac bones. The term ankylosis stands for loss of mobility of the spine, whereas spondylitis means inflammation of the spine. Therefore, ankylosing spondylitis is a condition where chronic inflammation of the spine and sacroiliac joint results in complete fusion of the vertebrae, leading to pain and stiffness in the spine.
Ankylosing spondylitis is a systemic disease affecting other tissues and organs throughout the body. It can cause inflammation of faraway joints and organs such as the eyes, heart, lungs, and kidneys.
Ankylosing spondylitis is 3 times more common in men than in women and affects people of all age groups including children, which is referred to as juvenile ankylosing spondylitis.
Causes of Ankylosing Spondylitis
The development of ankylosing spondylitis is believed to be genetically inherited as most patients suffering from this condition are found to be born with a gene known as HLA-B27 gene. Other factors involved are family history, gender and certain environmental factors that can trigger immune system problems that can lead to chronic tissue inflammation.
Symptoms of Ankylosing Spondylitis
The initial symptoms of ankylosing spondylitis are pain and stiffness in the lower back that may worsen in the night or early morning. Back pain may be felt in the sacroiliac joint between the spine and pelvis. Progression of the disease can affect all or part of the spine, resulting in decreased mobility of the lower spine and fatigue.
Other symptoms that are rarely seen are fever, loss of appetite, eye inflammation, and pain in the heel, hip and other joints of the shoulder, knee, and ankles.
Diagnosis of Ankylosing Spondylitis
The diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis involves a physical examination to evaluate your symptoms, X-rays and blood tests. Physical examination helps your doctor assess stiffness and range of motion of the spine and other related joints. X-rays are ordered for a clear diagnosis of sacroiliac joints, vertebrae, and other related bones. Certain blood tests are employed such as HLA-B27 antigen and sedimentation rate, which is a marker of inflammation throughout the body.
Treatment for Ankylosing Spondylitis
The treatment of ankylosing spondylitis involves the administration of certain medications to help reduce inflammation, suppress immunity and prevent progression of the disease. Different classes of medication available for treatment are NSAIDs, corticosteroids, or other new classes having anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving effect including biologics such as anti-TNF agents.
Other treatment options include physical therapy and exercise. These are very effective measures and help alleviate many symptoms. You should eat a healthy whole food diet, and avoid drinking alcohol and smoking cigarettes.